Hello, fellow foodies.Have you seen the movie "Oppenheimer" recently?
The film tells the story of Oppenheimer, a famous American physical scientist, who participated in the Manhattan Project and ultimately developed nuclear weapons, played a role in the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II, and his life.
There are many scientists in the movie who have deep ties to California.
American theoretical physicist "Father of the Atomic Bomb"
American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939 for discovering the cyclotron.Graduated from the University of South Dakota with a bachelor's degree. (Yes, it is the Lawrence UCB – Lawrence Hall of UC Berkeley National Laboratory)
However, did you know that there was also a Chinese person involved in the entire Manhattan Project?
She wasOppenheimer called
The authority on beta decay research
Chinese scientist——Wu Jianxiong.
Wu Jianxiong (1912-1997)
This outstanding Chinese physicist,
In the development and overthrow of the atomic bomb"The Law of Parity Conservation"
all played an important role.
In memory of her,
The United States also issuedherAvatar stamp
BBC in"Women Forgotten by Science"According to reports
Wu Jianxiong is "One of the most important physicists of the 20th century.
Wu Jianxiong1912Born in a scholarly family in Suzhou,
My father has been partial to Wu Jianxiong since he was a child,
Let her be in that era of extreme inequality between men and women,
Study and go to school with brothers at home.
It is said that one of Nash Wu Jianxiong's favorite novels,
JustBiography of Marie Curie.
Maybe this is somewhere for her to become"Madame Curie of China"
Planted a seed.
With father's cultivation and own efforts,
1930Wu Jianxiong entered Central University to studyMathematic major.
Driven by curiosity, she read some books on relativity and other aspects,
Unexpectedly, I was deeply attracted by scientific masters such as the Curies and Einstein.
So, in her second year, she applied fortransferred to the Department of Physics.
Under the tutelage of famous professorsShi ShiyuanMr.
Later, in order to learn more advanced physics knowledge,
In 1936, Wu Jianxiong chose to study in the United States.
she's hereUniversity of California Berkeley.
Studied under Dr. Lawrence
(TooOneNobel Prize winner,
Also Oppenheimer's good sidekick in the movie).
She graduated with a Ph.D. in 1940, and her articles have been published in
top journal in physicsPhysical Review.
butThe top 20 universities in the United States at that time,
never hired a female physicist,
So the school actuallyunwilling to hire her.
When Wu Jianxiong first entered the workplace,
Because of her identity as a woman and a Chinese, she sufferedunfair treatment.
Helpless, I can only continue to be a researcher in the laboratory.
In 1942, the U.S. developed theAtomic bomb.
Gathered the most outstanding scientists in the western world,
Beginning of then-classified research"Manhattan Project".
Wu Jianxiong's grades are fully qualified to be invited,
But once again she was turned away because of her Chinese and female identity.
When research on the atomic bomb stalled,
Oppenheimer, who conducted the research, and Lawrence, who participated in the planning,
Invited Wu Jianxiong to join the "Manhattan Project".
She is also the only Chinese female physicist in the program.
Wu Jianxiong's research helped advance the research on "nuclear fission reaction",
Oppenheimer himself said:"Without Dr. Wu's thesis,
It is absolutely impossible to develop the atomic bomb so quickly. "
So she is a well-deserved "Mother of the Atomic Bomb".
However, out of discrimination against nationality and gender, the US authorities,
Don't mention Dr. Wu's contribution.
But Dr. Wu's achievements are far more than that.
Yang Zhenning and Li Zhengdao proposed"Parity is not conserved"Suppose,
This tooThe research project that directly led to the two scientists winning the Nobel Prize.
At that time, scientists all over the world recognized the "Law of Conservation of Parity",
No one is willing to cooperate with Yang and Li.
After Wu Jianxiong heard their theories,
Immediately decided to join this research project,
anddesignedExperimental verification of the beta decay of polarized nuclear cobalt 60.
The experimental results were as they expected,
overthrows the law of parity conservation,
Shocked the entire scientific community at the time.
However, in 1957, the Nobel PrizeBut only awarded to Yang Zhenning and Li Zhengdao.
The Western world once again kept silent about Wu Jianxiong's achievements.
At that time, it also caused great controversy in the scientific community.
Even Thunberg, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1988, said:
"If there is no Wu Jianxiong,
"The law of conservation of parity" will continue to mislead world physics".
Although her grades were repeatedly ignored,
Wu Jianxiongjustcalmly said,
She didn't do research for the glory,
can contribute to physics,
It is enough to be recognized by so many scientists.
1943 became Princeton's first everfirst female teacher.
In 1958, she became Princeton's first female honorary doctorate.
Elected in 1975President of the American Physical Society,and many more.
Various major international awards other than the Nobel Prize,
almost has her name.
Wu Jianxiong's lifehas contributed as much as any male scientist,
It further proves that Chinese scientists do not lose to anyone.